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The gravitational force attracting them to each other is much smaller than the electric force repelling them, so there must fating another force keeping them daing. This other force is known as the strong nuclear force; it works only at small distances. The strong nuclear force is a very strong attractive force for protons and neutrons separated by a few femtometers, but is basically negligible for larger distances. The tug-of-war between the attractive force of the strong nuclear force and the repulsive electrostatic force between protons has interesting implications for the stability of a nucleus.

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Atoms with very low atomic numbers have about the same number of neutrons and protons; Bro team pill online dating Z gets larger, however, stable nuclei will have more neutrons than protons. Eventually, a point is reached beyond which there are no stable nuclei: Nuclei with more than 83 protons are all Equation for radioactive dating, and will eventually break up into smaller pieces; this is known as radioactivity. Nuclear binding energy and the mass defect A neutron has a slightly larger mass than the proton. Something should probably strike you as being a bit odd here. The carbon atom has a mass of The fact is that these six protons and six neutrons have a larger mass when they're separated than when they're bound together into a carbon nucleus.

This is true for all nuclei, that the mass of the nucleus is a little less than the mass of the individual neutrons and protons. This missing mass is known as the mass defect, and is essentially the equivalent mass of the binding energy. Einstein's famous equation relates energy and mass: If you convert some mass to energy, Einstein's equation tells you how much energy you get. In any nucleus there is some binding energy, the energy you would need to put in to split the nucleus into individual protons and neutrons. To find the binding energy, then, all you need to do is to add up the mass of the individual protons and neutrons and subtract the mass of the nucleus: The binding energy is then: In a typical nucleus the binding energy is measured in MeV, considerably larger than the few eV associated with the binding energy of electrons in the atom.

Nuclear reactions involve changes in the nuclear binding energy, which is why nuclear reactions give you much more energy than chemical reactions; those involve changes in electron binding energies. Radioactive decay Many nuclei are radioactive. This means they are unstable, and will eventually decay by emitting a particle, transforming the nucleus into another nucleus, or into a lower energy state. A chain of decays takes place until a stable nucleus is reached. During radioactive decay, principles of conservation apply. Some of these we've looked at already, but the last is a new one: There are three common types of radioactive decay, alpha, beta, and gamma.

The difference between them is the particle emitted by the nucleus during the decay process. Alpha decay In alpha decay, the nucleus emits an alpha particle; an alpha particle is essentially a helium nucleus, so it's a group of two protons and two neutrons. A helium nucleus is very stable. An example of an alpha decay involves uranium The process of transforming one element to another is known as transmutation. Alpha particles do not travel far in air before being absorbed; this makes them very safe for use in smoke detectors, a common household item. Beta decay A beta particle is often an electron, but can also be a positron, a positively-charged particle that is the anti-matter equivalent of the electron.

If an electron is involved, the number of neutrons in the nucleus decreases by one and the number of protons increases by one. An example of such a process is: In terms of safety, beta particles are much more penetrating than alpha particles, but much less than gamma particles. Gamma decay The third class of radioactive decay is gamma decay, in which the nucleus changes from a higher-level energy state to a lower level. Similar to the energy levels for electrons in the atom, the nucleus has energy levels. Ever heard of Plutonium? It's the stuff we use in our nuclear things -- weapons, submarines, etc. Plutonium has a half-life of 24, years.

In 24, years, you'd still have 50 pounds left In another 24, years, you'd still have 25 pounds left. This stuff just won't go away! This is why it is such a big concern when a nuclear submarine sinks Eventually, the salt water will eat through the steel and release the Plutonium which, as you know, is quite lethal. They usually talk about either trying to raise the sub or encase it in concrete where it rests.

The last figure I heard was that there are currently eight nuclear subs on our ocean floors. Now that I've completely depressed you Hey, did you know that YOU are radioactive? You've got this stuff in you called Carbon